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Introduction When the first edition of this book by Karl B. Schnelle and Charles A. Brown was published (1) some 16 years ago, there were a number of texts available that covered various aspects of pollution emissions and their control, including “Practical Handbook of Environmental Control” by Conrad P. Straub (2) that gave in tabular form a huge amount of easily accessed relevant data,...
Methanol is increasingly being looked at as a way to reduce the emissions potential of transport fuel. It may be used in place or in addition to gasoline fuel, for example. The amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted in producing methanol can vary hugely according to the syngas generation technology selected and the choice of electrical or steam turbine drive for compressors and pumps. This paper looks at the impact of these technology choices on GHG emissions and how the carbon intensity of methanol used as a transport fuel compares to the carbon intensity of other hydrocarbon fuels. It is found that methanol produces lower well to wheel emissions than gasoline under all production methods studied and can even produce lower GHG emissions compared to ethanol as a fuel supplement. However, the same is not always true if methanol is used to produce gasoline from natural gas.
China has been the world’s largest new vehicle market since 2009 and new vehicle sales exceeded 28 million in 2016, among which more than 87% were light-duty vehicles (LDV). In order to reduce emissions and control air pollution China has recently adopted the China 6 emissions standard for LDV which is 50% more stringent than China 5. Besides strengthening the tailpipe emissions limits, China 6 changes the emissions test driving cycle to the Worldwide Harmonised Light-Duty Vehicle Test Cycle (WLTC), adds real road emissions requirements and significantly strengthens evaporative emissions control. This paper introduces the standard development background, summarises the key technical improvements and discusses the areas for further improvements in future.
1. Introduction This symposium was organised by Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, to commemorate the first 20 years of research at Competence Centre for Catalysis (KCK). The Frontiers in Environmental Catalysis conference was held on 24th September 2015 at Chalmers University of Technology. All previous and current KCK employees were invited, together with representatives of KCK’s...
The introduction and development of catalytic control for exhaust gas emissions from vehicles has been one of the major technical achievements over the last four decades. A huge number of cars were manufactured during this time that provided society with a high degree of personal mobility and without the continuous development of emissions control technologies the atmospheric pollution...
This symposium held in Bad Harrenalb, Germany, from 3rd–5th September, 2017, specifically focused on modelling and numerical simulation in automobile exhaust-gas aftertreatment. The purpose of the workshop was to support the exchange of state-of-the-art modelling and simulation techniques and new approaches among researchers, scientists and engineers from industry and academia. The meeting had over 100 registered participants, about 45% from academia and 55% from industry. The scientific programme was composed of four tutorials, plus oral and poster presentations.
This report gives a summary of the oral presentations, which will be divided into five sessions: selective catalytic reduction (SCR), methane oxidation, diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF) and modelling and performance.
1. Introduction The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) 2014 Heavy-Duty Diesel Emission Control Symposium was, like its predecessors, hosted in Gothenburg, Sweden. This biennial two-day event attracted around 160 delegates. Most of the delegates (>95%) came from catalyst system and component suppliers as well as original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). A few delegates came from academia,...
The 40th anniversary of the manufacture of the world's first commercial batch of autocatalysts for passenger cars at Johnson Matthey Plc's site in Royston, UK, was marked in May 2014. Despite the enormous progress made in reducing the emission of pollutants from vehicles since the 1970s, there has also been considerable recent discussion about the levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx),...
Introduction The 24th North American Meeting of the Catalysis Society (NAM) was held from 14th to 19th June 2015 at the David L. Lawrence Convention Center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, with the Pittsburgh-Cleveland Catalysis Society as hosts (1). This biennial meeting is recognised as the premier conference about the science and applications of catalysis and catalytic processes and as...
1. Introduction The Carbon Dioxide Utilisation Summits are held twice per year, alternating between being hosted in a European location and in North America. They are organised by Active Communications International (ACI), Inc. This two-day event was held in Reykjavik, Iceland, on 18th and 19th October 2017. The main aim of this Summit series is to bring together key players from industry,...
Introduction Three-way catalysts (TWCs) have been widely applied on stoichiometric-burn gasoline engine powered vehicles to reduce the tailpipe emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). A conventional TWC can convert the three pollutants at nearly 100% conversion efficiency once it reaches its operation temperature, typically above 400°C. As the...
Industrial processes contribute significantly to global carbon dioxide emissions, with iron and steel manufacturing alone responsible for 6% of the total figure. The STEPWISE project, funded through the European Horizon 2020 (H2020) Low Carbon Energy (LCE) programme under grant agreement number 640769, is looking at reducing CO2 emissions in the iron and steel making industries. At the heart of this project is the ECN technology called sorption-enhanced water-gas shift (SEWGS), which is a solid sorption technology for CO2 capture from fuel gases such as blast furnace gas (BFG). This technology combines water-gas shift (WGS) in the WGS section with CO2/H2 separation steps in the SEWGS section. Scaling up of the SEWGS technology for CO2 capture from BFG and demonstrating it in an industrially relevant environment are the key objectives of the STEPWISE project, which are achieved by international collaboration between the project partners towards design, construction and operation of a pilot plant at Swerea Mefos, Luleå, Sweden, next to the SSAB steel manufacturing site.
The publication and implementation of the China VI emission standards for diesel fuelled heavy-duty vehicles is one of the important measures to fulfil the ‘blue sky defence’ action plan in China. This paper, by interpreting the background and key technical contents of the China VI emission standards, analyses the basis of the technical requirements and their impact. Moreover, it demonstrates the main differences between the China VI and China V emission standards and the Euro VI regulations, hoping to give the relevant industry in-depth insights into the new standard.