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image of Ammonia Sprays for Combustion: A Review


Ammonia is a globally transported chemical used for a variety of applications, most notably, the production of fertilizer. Over the past decade, attention has been afforded to the use of ammonia as an energy carrier, coupling global supply of renewable energy to demand regions. Ammonia’s advantages as an energy carrier include its ease of liquefaction and established international transportation routes; overcoming its low reactivity, excessive production of nitrogen oxides, and its toxicity remain as challenges. For energy applications, fuel delivery is a critical aspect of effective combustion in boilers, burners and engines. Due to its adaptable phase change characteristics, ammonia fuel may be injected as a liquid or vapour, each with respective advantages or disadvantages. The focus of this review concerns the characterisation of liquid ammonia fuel injection for combustion, including recent research findings from experimental and simulation studies. Liquid ammonia injection can result in the highly dynamic so-called ‘flashing’ or ‘flash boiling’ phenomena. Research findings have been drawn from other related applications such as accidental hazardous releases. Bespoke optical experimental rigs together with diagnostic techniques and two-phase CFD simulations have enabled studies of the flashing jets under various initial/final conditions, with recent work also examining ammonia spray combustion. The review concludes with an insight into future trends and requirements for liquid ammonia combustion. Reciprocating engines for marine propulsion are cited as potential early adopters of ammonia energy.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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