Glossary

0-9
2D two-dimensional
3D three-dimensional
3D-ECT 3-dimensional electrical capacitance tomography
A
a-Si amorphous silicon
a-Si:H hydrogenated amorphous silicon
AA ascorbic acid
AAS atomic absorption spectrometry
ABSS aqueous biphasic solvent system
AC alternating current
acac acetylacetonate
ADNC automated direct nucleation control
AEL alkaline electrolyser
AEM anion-exchange membrane 
AES Auger electron spectroscopy
AFC alkaline fuel cell
AFM atomic force microscopy
ALD atomic layer deposition
AMLCD active-matrix liquid-crystal display
AP-XPS ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
API active pharmaceutical ingredient
APPES ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy
APT atom probe tomography
at% atomic per cent
atm atmosphere
ATR autothermal reforming
ATR-FTIR attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared
ATR-UV attenuated total reflectance ultraviolet
AZO aluminium-doped zinc oxide
B
bcc body-centred cubic
BET Brunauer, Emmett and Teller
BINAP 2,2'-bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,1'-binaphthyl
bipy bipyridine
BMEP brake mean effective pressure
Bn benzyl
BOC butoxycarbonyl
BPM bipolar membrane 
BS Bharat Stage
BSE backscattered electron
BSFC brake specific fuel consumption
BTE brake thermal efficiency
BTEX benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene
BTX benzene, toluene and xylene
Bz benzoyl
C
c-EGR cooled exhaust gas recirculation
CAD computer aided design
CALPHAD calculation of phase diagrams
CAPEX capital expenditure
CARB California Air Resources Board
CCC counter-current chromatography
CCD charge coupled device
CCS carbon capture and storage
CCU carbon capture and utilisation
CCUS carbon capture, utilisation and storage
CDC continuous direct compression
CF conformity factor
CFD computational fluid dynamics
CHP combined heat and power
CI cetane index; confidence interval
CIDNP chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarisation
CIJR confined impinging jets reactor
CM cross metathesis
CMC carboxymethyl cellulose
CMOS complementary metal-oxide semiconductor
CN cetane number
CNT carbon nanotube
CO-TPD carbon monoxide temperature-programmed desorption
CO2e carbon dioxide equivalents
cod cycloocta-1,5-diene
CP-MAS cross polarisation-magic angle spinning
CPC centrifugal partition chromatography
CPP critical process parameters
CR combined reforming, with steam methane reforming and autothermal reforming; compression ratio
CRGO chemically reduced graphene oxide
CSF catalysed soot filter
CT computed tomography
CTE coefficient of thermal expansion
CTEM conventional transmission electron microscopy
CV cyclic voltammetry
CVD chemical vapour deposition
CXT computed X-ray tomography
D
DA dopamine
dba dibenzylideneacetone
DBFC direct borohydride fuel cell
DBN 1,5-diazabicyclo[5.3.0]non-5-ene
DBU 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene
DC direct current
DEFC direct ethanol fuel cell
DEM discrete element method
DFT density functional theory
DIOP 2,3-O-isopropylidene-2,3-dihydroxy-1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane
DLS dynamic light scattering
DMA dimethylacetamide
DMAP 4-dimethylaminopyridine
DME dimethoxyethane
DMF N,N-dimethylformamide
DMFC direct methanol fuel cell
DMSO dimethyl sulfoxide
DOC diesel oxidation catalyst
DoD drop on demand
DOI Digital Object Identifier
DOS density of states 
DPF diesel particulate filter
DPH dispersion hardening
dppf 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene
dr diastereomeric ratio
DRAM dynamic random access memory
DRIFTS diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy
DSC differential scanning calorimetry
DSSC dye-sensitised solar cell
DTA differential thermal analysis
DtBPF 1,1ʹ-bis(di-tert-butylphosphino)ferrocene
E
EBID electron beam induced deposition
EC electrocatalyst; ethylene carbonate
ECVT electrical capacitance volume tomography
EDS energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy
EDX energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy
ee enantiomeric excess
EELS electron energy loss spectroscopy
EI emissions index
emf electromotive force
EMPA electron microprobe analysis
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
EPMA electron probe microanalysis
EPR electron paramagnetic resonance
ERGO electrochemically reduced graphene oxide
ESCA electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis
ESR electron spin resonance
Et ethyl
EtOH ethanol
EUDC Extra-Urban Drive Cycle
EV electric vehicle
EXAFS extended X-ray absorption fine structure
F
FA furfuryl alcohol
FBRM focused beam reflectance measurement
FC fuel cell
fcc face-centred cubic
FCC fluidised catalytic cracking
FCNT fuel-cut NOx trap
FEM field emission spectroscopy
FIB focused ion beam
FID flame ionisation detector
FSFT field sweep Fourier transform
FSP flame spray pyrolysis
FTIR Fourier transform infrared
FTP Federal Test Procedure
G
g gram
GBL γ-butyrolactone
GC gas chromatography
GC-MS gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
GCE glassy carbon electrode
GDCI gasoline direct injection compression ignition
GDE gas diffusion electrode 
GDI gasoline direct injection
GDL gas diffusion layer
GHG greenhouse gas
GHR gas heated reforming
GHSV gas hourly space velocity
GNDA graphene nanodots array
GO graphene oxide
GPF gasoline particulate filter
GQD graphene quantum dots
GrF graphene foam
GS graphene sheet
GVL γ-valerolactone
GZO gallium-doped zinc oxide
H
h hour
HAADF−STEM high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy 
HAMR heat-assisted magnetic recording
HAXPES hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
HC hydrocarbon
HCCI homogeneous charge compression ignition
hcp hexagonal close-packed
HD heavy duty
HDA hydrodearomatisation
HDD hard disk drive; heavy-duty diesel
HDN hydrodenitrogenation
HDO hydrodeoxygenation
HDS hydrodesulfurisation
HER hydrogen evolution reaction 
HEV hybrid electric vehicle
HIP hot isostatic pressing
HMF 5-hydroxymethylfurfural
HPA heteropoly acids
HPLC high-performance liquid chromatography
HR-SEM high-resolution scanning electron microscopy
HR-TEM high-resolution transmission electron microscopy
HREELS high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy
HRXRD high-resolution X-ray diffraction 
HTWGS high temperature water gas shift
HwFET Highway Fuel Economy Test
I
IC internal combustion
ICE internal combustion engine
ICP-MS inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
ICP-OES inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry
ICPES inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry
ID internal diameter
IETS inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy
IFPBT iterative filtered back projection technique
IgG immunoglobulin G
IL ionic liquids
ILBP iterative linear back projection
INS inelastic neutron scattering
IR infrared
ISS ion scattering spectroscopy
ITO indium tin oxide
IXS inelastic X-ray scattering
J
JM Johnson Matthey
JMTC Johnson Matthey Technology Centre
K
kg kilogram
L
L-DOPA L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
LA levulinic acid
laser light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation
LBP linear back projection
LCA life cycle assessment
LCD liquid crystal display
LCFS low carbon fuel standard
LCO light cycle oil
LD light-duty
LDA lithium diisopropylamide
LEC light-emitting electrochemical cell
LED light-emitting diode
LEED low-energy electron diffraction
LEV low emission vehicle
LFP lithium iron phosphate
LHSV liquid hourly space velocity
LIB Lithium-ion battery
LLE liquid-liquid extraction
LLZO Li7La3Zr2O12
LMR longitudinal magnetic recording
LNT lean NOx trap
LTGCI low-temperature gasoline compression ignition
LTO lithium titanate, Li4Ti5O12
M
M15 15% methanol and 85% gasoline fuel blend
MAMR microwave-assisted magnetic recording
MAS magic angle spinning
MBTE methyl tertiary-butyl ether
MCFC molten carbonate fuel cell
mCHP micro combined heat and power
MCR-ALS multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares
Me methyl
MEA membrane electrode assembly; monoethanolamine
MeOH methanol
Mes mesyl
MFC microbial fuel cell
MILP mixed-integer linear programming model
MLCC multi-layer ceramic capacitor
MLCT metal-to-ligand charge transfer
MNC mesoporous N doped carbon
MnO2NR manganese oxide nanoribbons
MOCVD metalorganic chemical vapour deposition
MOF metal-organic framework
mol% mole per cent
MOSFET metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor
MPC model predictive control
mpg miles per gallon
mph miles per hour
MPV Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley
MRAM magnetoresistive random access memory
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
MS mass spectrometry
MSM metal-semiconductor-metal
MSMPR mixed-suspension mixed-product removal
MSR methanol steam reforming
MSZW metastable zone width
mtpd metric tonnes per day
MWCNT multiwalled carbon nanotube
MWNT multiwalled nanotube
N
n/a not applicable or not available
NA naturally aspirated
NAND not and
NAP-HE-XPS near-ambient pressure high energy X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
NAP-XPS near ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
NCM nickel cobalt manganese
NCNF N doped carbon nanofibers
NEDC New European Driving Cycle
NEP noise equivalent power
NEXAFS near edge X-ray absorption fine structure 
NGF N doped graphene fibres
NGr nitrogen-doped graphene
NHCS N doped hollow carbon spheres
NHE normal hydrogen electrode
NHPC N doped hierarchically porous carbon
NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
NICS nucleus-independent chemical shift
NIR near-infrared
NMC nickel manganese cobalt
NMHC non-methane hydrocarbon
NMOG non-methane organic gas
NMR nuclear magnetic resonance
NN-MOIRT neural-network multi-criterion optimisation image reconstruction technique
NOR not or
NOx nitrogen oxides
NPs nanoparticles
NSC NOx storage catalyst
NSR NOx storage reduction
O
o-Tol ortho-tolyl
ODS oxide dispersion strengthened
OEM original equipment manufacturer
OER oxygen evolution reaction 
OLED organic light-emitting diode
OMOM methoxymethoxy
OPEX operational expenditure
ORR oxygen reduction reaction
OSBL outside battery limits
OSC oxygen storage capacity
P
P2G power-to-gas
P2L power-to-liquids
P2X power-to-X
PAFC phosphoric acid fuel cell
PAH polyaromatic hydrocarbons
PAT process analytical technology; phosphinothricin acetyltransferase
PBM population balance model
PbP pixel-by-pixel
PBROM physics-based reduced-order model
PC propylene carbonate
PCA principal component analysis
PCE polynomial chaos expansion
PDA poly(dopamine)
PDC polymer derived ceramics
PDDA poly(diallyldimethylammonium)chloride
PDF powder diffraction; portable document format
PDL pumped dye laser
PE polyethylene
PECVD plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition
PEEK polyether ether ketone
PEEM photoemission electron microscopy
PEFC polymer electrolyte fuel cell
PEM proton exchange membrane; polymer-electrolyte membrane
PEMFC proton exchange membrane fuel cell or polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell
PEMS portable emissions monitoring system
PES photoelectron spectroscopy
PFA perfluoroalkoxy
PFI port fuel injected
PGE platinum group element; porous graphene electrode
pgm platinum group metal: platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium or osmium
PGM platinum group mineral
Ph phenyl
PHEV plug-in hybrid electric vehicle
PID proportional-integral-derivative
PIV particle image velocimetry
PLD pulsed laser deposition
PLIF planar laser induced fluorescence
PLL poly-L-lysine
PLS partial least squares
PM particulate matter
PMMA polymethyl methacrylate
PMR perpendicular magnetic recording; Platinum Metals Review
PN particulate number
poly-Si polycrystalline silicon
poly(Cu-AMT) polymerised copper-2-amino-5-mercapto-1,3,4 thiadiazole complex
ppb parts per billion
ppm parts per million
ppmC parts per million carbon
ppmv parts per million by volume
PPV poly(p-phenylvinylene)
ppy 2-phenylpyridine
PROX preferential CO oxidation
PS polystyrene
PSE process systems engineering
psi pounds per square inch
PTFE polytetrafluoroethylene
PTL porous transport layer
PV photovoltaic
PVC poly(vinyl chloride)
PVD physical vapour deposition
PVM particle vision and measurement
PVP poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)
PXRD powder X-ray diffraction
py pyridine
PZEV partial zero emissions vehicle
Q
QbD quality by design
R
R&D research and development
RCM ring-closing metathesis
RDE Real-world Driving Emissions; rotating disc electrode
rf radiofrequency
RGO reduced graphene oxide
RHE reversible hydrogen electrode
RIXS resonant inelastic X-ray scattering
ROMP ring-opening metathesis polymerisation
RON research octane number
rpm revolutions per minute
RRS resonance Raman spectroscopy
RS Raman spectroscopy
RT room temperature
RTD residence time distribution
RWGS reverse water gas shift
RXES resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy 
S
S-Fc ferrocene thiolate
s-SNOM scattering type scanning near-field optical microscopy
SANS small-angle neutron scattering
SAR silica to alumina ratio
SAXS small angle X-ray spectroscopy
scCO2 supercritical carbon dioxide
SCR selective catalytic reduction
SE secondary electron
SEHS spin echo height spectroscopy
SEI solid electrolyte interphase
SEIS spin echo integration spectroscopy
SEM scanning electron microscopy
SEM-EDS scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy
SERS surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy
SFTP Supplemental Federal Test Procedure
SHE standard hydrogen electrode
SIMS secondary ion mass spectroscopy
SM shape memory
SMA shape memory alloy
SMR steam methane reforming
SMSI strong metal-support interaction
SNR signal-to-noise ratio
SOC state of charge
SOEL solid oxide electrolyser
SOFC solid oxide fuel cell
SOx sulfur oxides
SPCE screen printed carbon electrode
SPEFC solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell
SPEL solid polymer electrolyser
SPFC solid polymer fuel cell (also known as PEMFC)
SQUIDS superconducting quantum interference devices
SRAM static random access memory
SRS simulated Raman spectroscopy
SSD solid state drive
SSNMR solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance
STEM scanning transmission electron microscopy
STM scanning tunnelling microscopy
STXM scanning transmission X-ray microscopy
SULEV super ultra low emission vehicle
SUV sport utility vehicle
T
TAR thermally-assisted magnetic recording
TBAF tetrabutyl ammonium fluoride
TBDPS tert-butyldiphenylsilyl
TBS tert-butyldimethylsilyl
TCD thermal conductivity detector
TCE trichloroethylene
TCO transparent conducting oxides
TEM transmission electron microscopy
TES triethylsilyl
TFA trifluoroacetic acid
TFT thin-film transistors
TGA thermogravimetric analysis
THC total hydrocarbon
THF tetrahydrofuran
TIG tungsten inert gas
TIPS triisopropylsilyl ether
TLC thin layer chromatography
TM transition metal; trade mark (if superscript)
TMB transition metal boride
TMEDA tetramethylethylenediamine
tmp tetramethylpiperidine
TMP transition metal phosphide
TMS tetramethylsilane
TOF turnover frequency
TOFMS time of flight mass spectrometry
TON turnover number
TPD temperature-programmed desorption
TPO temperature programmed oxidation
tpphz tetrapyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c:3'',2''-h:2''',3'''-j]phenazine
TPR temperature-programmed reduction
tpy terpyridine
Tr triphenylmethyl (trityl)
TRGO thermally reduced graphene oxide
TRL technology readiness level
TRL technology readiness level 
Ts tosyl
TWC three-way catalyst
TXM transmission X-ray microscopy
U
UA uric acid
UC unified cycle
UHV ultrahigh vacuum
ULEV ultra low emission vehicle
UPS ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy
UV ultraviolet
UV-vis ultraviolet-visible
V
VAM vinyl acetate monomer
VCR variable compression ratio
VLSI very large scale integrated circuits
vol% volume per cent
W
w/w weight/weight
WAXS wide-angle X-ray scattering
WDS wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy
WE water electrolysis 
WGS water gas shift
WLTC World-Harmonised Light-Duty Test Cycle
WLTP World Harmonised Light Vehicle Test Procedure
wt% weight per cent
X
XANES X-ray absorption near edge structure
XAS X-ray absorption spectroscopy
XES X-ray emission spectroscopy
Xides transition metal borides, carbides, nitrides, phosphides and chalcogenides 
XMCD X-ray magnetic circular dichroism
XMLD X-ray magnetic linear dichroism
XMT X-ray micro-tomography
XPS X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
XRD X-ray diffraction
XRF X-ray fluorescence
XRT X-ray tomography; X-ray microtomography
Z
ZEV zero emission vehicle
ZFO zinc ferrite
ZGS zirconia grain stabilised