Frederick A. Lewis
Frederick A. Lewis
Frederick Alastair Lewis died in Belfast, Northern Ireland, on 22nd May 2007 after a long illness. He had been a frequent contributor to Platinum Metals Review. Born in Belfast in 1926, Fred served in the Royal Navy during the Second World War. After his naval service (1944–47), he began the study of Chemistry at Queen's University, Belfast, which culminated in his Ph.D. degree under the direction of Professor A. R. Ubbelohde. He subsequently carried out postdoctoral studies at Imperial College, London, again under the direction of Professor Ubbelohde. While at Imperial College, Fred and Ubbelhohde coauthored the book, “Graphite and Its Crystalline Compounds” (1). In 1956 Fred returned to Queen's University as a Lecturer and later became a Reader in Inorganic Chemistry.
During his career at Queen's, Fred carried out research on metal-hydrogen systems and specifically on palladium and its alloys. His 33 contributions to Platinum Metals Review (2–34) included numerous review articles; his first, ‘The Hydrides of Palladium and Palladium Alloys’, was published in 1960 (2) and his last in 2003 (33), ‘Uphill Effects on Hydrogen Diffusion Coefficients in Pd0.77Ag0.23 Alloy Membranes’, coauthored with Tong, Cermák and Bell. His paper of 1982, ‘The Palladium-Hydrogen System’ (11) is particularly frequently cited.
Fred especially enjoyed interacting with colleagues from foreign countries, and collaborating in research with them. During the “Iron Curtain” period, J. Cermák (Institute of Physics, Academy of Science, Prague, Czech Republic), R. Bucur (Institute of Stable Isotopes, Cluj, Romania) and B. Baranowski (Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Science, Warsaw, Poland) collaborated with Fred, at Queen's and at their home institutions. During that time, scientific exchanges with Eastern European scientists provided valuable contacts for both the Eastern and Western European scientists. Fred also collaborated with scientists from other countries, for example, F. Mazzolai (Department of Physics, University of Perugia, Italy), Y. Sakamoto (Department of Material Science and Engineering, Nagasaki University, Japan), X.-Q. Tong (Department of Materials Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China) and K. Kandasamy (Department of Physics, University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka).
Fred played a unique role by attending conferences which were often not well attended by other Western European scientists. Some examples were the “First International Workshop on Stress and Diffusion”, Balatonfüred, Hungary, 1995 (25), “Hypothesis III” symposium, in St. Petersburg, Russia, 1999 (31), “Hydrogen Treatment of Materials”, HTM-2001, Donetsk-Mariupol, Ukraine, 2001 (32), and the “Second International Symposium on Safety and Economy of Hydrogen Transport”, IFSSEHT-2003, Sarov, Russia, 2003 (34). Useful reports on these conferences by Fred appeared in Platinum Metals Review (25, 31, 32, 34).
Fred participated in the “Hydrogen Treatment of Materials” conferences held in Donetsk, Ukraine, organised triannually since 1995 by Professor V. A. Goltsov of the Donetsk State Technical University, Ukraine (26, 30, 32). Professor Goltsov is a recognised authority on H diffusion in Pd and other metals. Professor Goltsov has referred to the phenomenon of uphill diffusion of H in Pd as the ‘Lewis Effect’ because it was first observed and characterised by Fred Lewis and his coworkers (35). Fred first observed this phenomenon in 1983, he realised its importance, and, with international coworkers, X.-Q. Tong, R. Burcur, B. Baranowski, K. Kandasamy, Y. Sakamoto and others, actively pursued it until his retirement. An official award was given to Fred in 2001 by the International Association for Hydrogen Energy (IAHE) and the Permanent Working International Scientific Committee on Hydrogen Treatment of Materials (PWISC HTM) in recognition of the Lewis Effect (36).
The book “The Palladium-Hydrogen System” was written by F. A. Lewis and published in 1967 by Academic Press (37). Palladium alloys and isotopes of hydrogen were also included in the book which has continued as a valuable reference forty years after its publication. Fred was very meticulous about citing references properly which makes this book and his many review articles valuable for searches of the literature. In 2000, Fred with Kandasamy and Tong published a book-length review (295 pages), entitled ‘Platinum- and Palladium-Hydrogen’, in “Hydrogen in Metal Systems II”, Solid State Phenomena, Scitec Publications, Zürich (38). This constituted a useful update of his earlier book. Fred and A. Aladjem edited the series of reviews, Parts I and II, which included his article with Kandasamy and Tong. Reviews by other scientists in this series covered most metals which absorb hydrogen.
In 1985 Fred organised an “International Symposium on Hydrogen in Metals” held in Belfast (39). The Symposium was well attended and considered to be very successful. The proceedings were published in Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie Neue Folge (40), and then as a book (41). The editor of the journal at that time was Ewald Wicke, Director of the Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Münster, Germany. Fred and Professor Wicke collaborated in the editing of the symposium papers for the published proceedings in the Zeitschrift. A long friendship developed between the two scientists as a result of this collaboration.
Fred will be missed by his many scientific friends because he was an excellent scientist and a jovial, kind-hearted person.
- A. R. Ubbelohde and F. A. Lewis, “Graphite and Its Crystalline Compounds”, Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K., 1960
- F. A. Lewis, ‘The Hydrides of Palladium and Palladium Alloys’, Platinum Metals Rev., 1960, 4, (4), 132 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/4/4/132-137
- F. A. Lewis, ‘The Hydrides of Palladium and Palladium Alloys’, Platinum Metals Rev., 1961, 5, (1), 21 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/5/1/21-25
- F. A. Lewis, ‘The Hydrided Palladium Electrode’, Platinum Metals Rev., 1962, 6, (1), 22 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/6/1/22-27
- F. A. Lewis, ‘Novel Method of Electrical Storage’, Platinum Metals Rev., 1963, 7, (3), 88 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/7/3/88-89
- F. A. Lewis, ‘Hydrogen in Palladium and its Alloys’, Platinum Metals Rev., 1968, 12, (4), 140 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/12/4/140-141
- F. A. Lewis, ‘Absorption of Hydrogen by Palladium Alloys’, Platinum Metals Rev., 1970, 14, (4), 131 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/14/4/131-132
- R. Burch and F. A. Lewis, ‘The Form of the Interaction between Palladium and Hydrogen’, Platinum Metals Rev., 1971, 15, (1), 21 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/15/1/21-25
- F. A. Lewis, ‘Current Research on the Palladium-Hydrogen System’, Platinum Metals Rev., 1977, 21, (4), 134 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/21/4/134-137
- F. A. Lewis, ‘Platinum Group Metal Hydrides’, Platinum Metals Rev., 1980, 24, (3), 102 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/24/3/102-103
- F. A. Lewis, ‘The Palladium-Hydrogen System’, Platinum Metals Rev., 1982, 26, (1), 20 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/26/1/20-27
- F. A. Lewis, ‘The Palladium-Hydrogen System’, Platinum Metals Rev., 1982, 26, (2), 70 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/26/2/70-78
- F. A. Lewis, ‘The Palladium-Hydrogen System’, Platinum Metals Rev., 1982, 26, (3), 121 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/26/3/121-128
- F. A. Lewis, ‘Hydrogen in Palladium and Its Alloys’, Platinum Metals Rev., 1984, 28, (1), 13 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/28/1/13-13
- F. A. Lewis, K. Kandasamy and B. Baranowksi, ‘The “Uphill” Diffusion of Hydrogen’, Platinum Metals Rev., 1988, 32, (1), 22 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/32/1/22-26
- F. A. Lewis, ‘Hydrogen in Amorphous Palladium Alloys’, Platinum Metals Rev., 1988, 32, (2), 83 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/32/2/83-1
- R.-A. McNichol and F. A. Lewis, ‘The Hydride Phase Miscibility Gap in Palladium-Rare Earth Alloys’, Platinum Metals Rev., 1990, 34, (2), 81 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/34/2/81-84
- F. A. Lewis, X. Q. Tong and R. V. Bucur, ‘Permeation of Hydrogen through Palladium-Silver Membranes’, Platinum Metals Rev., 1991, 35, (3), 138 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/35/3/138-140
- F. A. Lewis, ‘Metal-Hydrogen Systems and the Hydrogen Economy’, Platinum Metals Rev., 1992, 36, (4), 196 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/36/4/196-201
- F. A. Lewis, ‘Hydrogen Interstitial Structures in Palladium-Silver Membranes’, Platinum Metals Rev., 1993, 37, (4), 220 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/37/4/220-222
- F. A. Lewis, ‘Hydrogen Material Science and Metal Hydride Chemistry’, Platinum Metals Rev., 1994, 38, (1), 20 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/38/1/20-21
- F. A. Lewis, ‘Palladium-Hydrogen System’, Platinum Metals Rev., 1994, 38, (3), 112 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/38/3/112-118
- F. A. Lewis, ‘International Conference on “Noble and Rare Metals”’, Platinum Metals Rev., 1995, 39, (1), 29 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/39/1/29-32
- F. A. Lewis, ‘Fundamentals and Applications of Metal-Hydrogen Systems’, Platinum Metals Rev., 1995, 39, (2), 75 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/39/2/75-78
- F. A. Lewis, ‘First International Workshop on Diffusion and Stresses’, Platinum Metals Rev., 1995, 39, (3), 127 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/39/3/127-128
- F. A. Lewis, ‘Hydrogen Treatment of Materials’, Platinum Metals Rev., 1996, 40, (1), 36 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/40/1/36-37
- F. A. Lewis, ‘Problems of the Palladium-Hydrogen System’, Platinum Metals Rev., 1996, 40, (4), 180 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/40/4/180-1
- F. A. Lewis, ‘Rapid Hydrogen Permeation in Palladium and Palladium Alloys’, Platinum Metals Rev., 1997, 41, (1), 33 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/41/1/33-33
- F. A. Lewis, ‘Platinum Metals Involvement in the Hydrogen Economy’, Platinum Metals Rev., 1997, 41, (4), 163 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/41/4/163-1
- F. A. Lewis, ‘Hydrogen Treatment of Materials’, Platinum Metals Rev., 1998, 42, (3), 99 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/42/3/99-99
- F. A. Lewis, ‘Advancements in Hydrogen Technology’, Platinum Metals Rev., 1999, 43, (4), 166 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/43/4/166-167
- F. A. Lewis, ‘Hydrogen Treatment of Materials’, Platinum Metals Rev., 2001, 45, (3), 130 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/45/3/130-130
- X. Q. Tong, F. A. Lewis, S. E. J. Bell and J. Cermák, ‘Uphill Effects on Hydrogen Diffusion Coefficients in Pd77Ag23 Alloy Membranes’, Platinum Metals Rev., 2003, 47, (1), 32 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/47/1/32-36
- F. A. Lewis, ‘Hydrogen Economy Forum in Russia’, Platinum Metals Rev., 2003, 47, (4), 166 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/47/4/166-166
- F. A. Lewis, J. P. Magennis, S. G. McKee and P. J. M. Ssebuwufu, Nature, 1983, 306, (5944), 673 LINK http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/306673a0
- V. A. Goltsov and T. N. Veziroglu, ‘A Step on the Road to Hydrogen Civilization, The “HTM-2001” review’, inThe Third International Conference “Hydrogen Treatment of Materials”, Donetsk National Technical University, Ukraine, 14th–18th May, 2001: http://donntu.edu.ua/hydrogen/conf.html
- F. A. Lewis, “The Palladium-Hydrogen System”, Academic Press, London, New York, 1967
- F. A. Lewis, K. Kandasamy and X. Q. Tong, ‘Platinum and Palladium-Hydrogen’, in “Hydrogen in Metal Systems II”, eds.F. A. Lewis and A. Aladjem, Solid State Phenomena, Vols. 73–75, Scitec Publications, Zürich, Switzerland, 2000, Chapter 6, pp. 207–501 LINK http://www.scientific.net/3-908450-55-1/
- P. A. Sermon, ‘Symposium on Hydrogen in Metals’, Platinum Metals Rev., 1985, 29, (3), 115 LINK https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/29/3/115-117
- F. A. Lewis and E. Wicke(Eds.), Z. Phys. Chem. Neue Folge, 1985, 143, 1–254; 1985, 145, 1–278; 1985, 146, 137–242; and1986, 147, 1–290
- “Hydrogen in Metals”, eds.F. A. Lewis and E. Wicke, R. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munchen, Germany, 1986, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Hydrogen in Metals, 26th–29th March, 1985, Queen's University of Belfast, Northern Ireland
Ted Flanagan was a postdoctoral worker with Fred Lewis at Queen's University, Belfast, from 1957 to 1959; he had an enjoyable and productive time. The collaboration with Fred resulted in twelve papers in the area of H2 absorption by Pd and its alloys. After that, Flanagan spent two years at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, and then joined the University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, where he has remained. Flanagan's main interests have been in the area of metal, alloy and intermetallic-H systems. Following in the footsteps of his collaboration with Fred Lewis, his special interests have been Pd- and Pd alloy-H systems. Flanagan received his B.S. from the University of California, Berkeley and his Ph.D. from the University of Washington, Seattle. He subsequently received a Ph.D. honoris causa from Uppsala University (1992) for his research on H in Pd-based compounds such as Pd6P. He is on the Editorial Advisory Board of the Journal of Alloys and Compounds and the Materials Science Forum. Although he is now an Emeritus Professor, he has continued his research on metal-H systems.