NEW PATENTS: April 1965
NEW PATENTS: April 1965
METALS AND ALLOYS
the international nickel co. (mond) ltd. British Patent 974,057
A spring for use at 500°C or above consists of an Ir alloy containing 0.5-7 wt.% W and incidental impurities.
Commutator Devices for Micromotors
hitachi ltd. British Patent 975,299
A commutator device for micromotors has commutator segments made of 80-60 wt.% Ag and 20-40 wt.% Pd alloy and holders carrying in sliding contact with the segments metallic brushes made of 95-70 wt.% Pt and 5-30 wt.% Ir alloy.
Improving the Ductility of Ruthenium
the international nickel co. (mond) ltd. British Patent 981,535
The workability of Ru is improved by melting it under neutral conditions in contact with 0.05-5 wt.% of one or more of the elements: Zn, Cd, Bi, Ti, Ge, Ba, Hf, Ce, Er, Ga, Ho, La, Pr, Sm, Y or Yb and allowing it to solidify without changing the conditions.
Precious Metals and Alloys
the international nickel co. (mond) ltd. British Patent 981,792
A sheet or strip of Pt group metals or their alloys is produced by forming a compact of flake powder with or without alloying ingredients, heating so that sintering occurs and working the sintered metal to give the desired sheet or strip.
international resistance co. U.S. Patent 3,154,503
An electrical resistor is produced by applying to a ceramic substrate and firing a vitreous enamel consisting of 99-50 wt.% glass frit including 1-24 wt.% Ag2O and 1-50 wt.% finely divided Pd, Pt or Rh.
Coating Glass or Refractory Oxides
deutsche gold- & silber-scheideanstalt French Patent 1,366,570
The thermal resistance of refractory metal oxide bodies or mixtures of silicates is improved and their corrosion by other materials is prevented by coating them with a Pt alloy containing 2-10 wt. % Rh and 0.5-ro wt.% Pd.
Coated Titanium Electrodes
canadian industries ltd. British Patent 974,320
An electrode particularly suitable as an anode in the electrolysis of brine consists of a Ti core with a 10-200 [i. thick electrodeposited layer of an alloy of 35-60 wt.% Rh and 65-40 wt.% Pt.
Activated Platinum-plated Titanium Anode
universal oil products co. British Patent 974,570
An anode suitable for the electrolysis of an alkaline chloride solution is prepared by electroplating a Ti member from H2PtCl6 solution at 71-77°C to give an adherent amorphous coating of Pt which is then activated by heating above 316°C in the presence of an air stream containing hydrocarbon vapours, whereby catalytic oxidation of the vapours occurs over the entire surface of the Pt coating.
Production of Super-pure Hydrogen
nippon junsinzo k.k. U.S. Patent 3,155,467
Super-pure H2 is obtained by passing a gaseous H2 mixture at 500-600 °C through a permeable wall of a Pd alloy containing 2-40 wt. % of at least one Group I B metal and 0.1-20 wt.% of at least one Group VIII metal other than Pd, e.g. Ag-Ru-Pd or Au-Pt-Pd.
Activation of Platinum Group Metals
johnson, matthev & co. ltd. French Patent 1,364,203
The Pt group metals, and in particular various electrodes coated with such metals, are activated by contacting them with an alkali metal amalgam, distilling off Hg at 260-482°C and recrystallising the Pt or Pt-Rh alloy film at 37l-537°C.
Electrolytic Palladium Plating
international business machines corp. U.S. Patent 3,150,065
Non-porous Pd deposits suitable for use as electrical contacts for printed circuit cards are obtained by using a Pt anode and connecting the substrate as a cathode in a diaphragmless bath solution containing 60 g/1 palladosamine chloride, 10 g/1 Na„Cl, 25 g/1 (NH2)2SO4 and 50 ml/1 NH2OH.
Palladium or Platinum Plating Bath
johnson, matthey & co ltd. German Patent 1,182,924
Bath contains an aqueous solution of a complex dinitritoplatinate (II) or dinitritopalladate (II).
the international nickel co. (mond) ltd. Dutch Application 212,633
Electrodeposition takes place using an aqueous chloroplatinate solution containing 10-50 g Pt and 180-300 g HC1 at 45−90°C using plating conditions laid down in a diagram.
Platinum Plating Baths
asahi kasei k.k.k. Dutch Application 64.02,931
An electroplating bath consists of NH4, K or Na sulphamate dissolved in an aqueous solution of dinitrodiaminoplatinic acid. High gloss coatings can be obtained.
the international nickel co. (mond) ltd. British Patent 976,660
A brazing alloy for the production of ceramic-to-ceramic and ceramic-to-metal joints consists of 30-75 wt.% Pd, 2-9 wt.% Ti and the remainder, except for impurities, Ni, preferably taken in a 3:2 Pd: Ni ratio.
Removal of Alkynes from Hydrocarbon Mixtures
shell internationale research mij. n.v. British Patent 974,038
Alkynes are removed from a hydrocarbon mixture containing alkadienes by passing a solution of H2 dissolved in such a mixture together with gaseous H2 in an upflow stream through a fixed bed consisting of a macroporous support carrying 0.1-5 wt.% Pd catalyst.
Platinum and Palladium Oxide Catalysts in the Production of 2-Ethyl-pyridine
veb leuna-werke “walter ulbricht” British Patent 974,113
2-Ethyl-pyridine is produced by heating 2-(ß-hydroxyethyl)-pyridine to 250-400°C in an H 2 atmosphere and in the presence of a catalyst consisting of Al2O3 and Pd or Pt oxide.
Platinum Croup Metal Phosphatide Hydrogénation Catalysts
central soya co. inc. British Patent 974,432
Phosphatide material is hydrogenated by contacting Pd, Pt, Rh or their mixtures supported on C, Al2O3, CaCO3 or diatomaceous earth with H2 and then contacting 0.05-1.0 wt.% of the hydrogenated catalyst with the phosphatide and H2.
Production of Sulphonamides
ciba ltd. British Patent 974,983
A Pd/C hydrogénation catalyst is used in the production of 1,4-endoalkylene-cyclohexane-2-sulphonamides by the reaction of sulphonyls with NH3 or amine followed by hydrogénation and if desired also N-alkylation or N-acylation.
Derivatives of l-Phenyl-2-aminoethanol
imperial chemical industries ltd. British Patent 975,291
The production of 1-phenyl-2-aminoethanol derivatives involves a hydrogénation stage in the presence of Pt or Pd/C catalyst.
Production of Carboxylic Acid Esters
imperial chemical industries ltd British Patent 975,709
Carboxylic acid esters of unsaturated monohydric alcohols are produced by contacting an define with a Pd salt, a carboxylate, which is ionised under the reaction conditions, and a redox system in a carboxylic acid.
Production of Cyclohexanone
allied chemical corp. British Patent 976,339
Cyclohexanone is produced by the hydrogénation of phenol at 150-225°C, 2.46-10.5 kg/cm2 and in the presence of 5% Pd/C catalyst promoted with 1000-7000 p.p.m. of combined Na based on wt. of catalyst and 1-10 p.p.m. of phenol of an inorganic sodium compound.
Production of Aromatic Halogen-containing Compounds
monsanto chemicals ltd. British Patent 976,438
Halogen-substituted aromatic compounds are produced by subjecting an aromatic sulphonyl halide to thermal decomposition at 300-400°C and in the presence of Pd or Pt or an oxide or halide thereof as a catalyst.
Process for Preparing Esters
national distillers & chemical corp. British Patent 976,613
Ethylenically unsaturated esters are produced by reacting an alkene in the vapour phase with a carboxylic organic acid and an O2-containing gas in the presence of a catalyst comprising a Group VIII noble metal and/or its salt or oxide, e.g. Pd/C or PdX2, where X is halogen, or RhCl3.
Platinum Group Metal Catalysts
socony mobil oil co. inc. British Patent 978,261
Pt group metal catalysts are produced by introducing an appropriate metal into a crystalline alumino-silicate zeolite, or into a reaction mixture for preparing such a zeolite, so that the metal is distributed on or within the crystalline structure of the zeolite, followed by thermal treatment at 250-1100°F so that the Pt group metal is catalytically activated.
Production of Cyclododecanone Oxime and its Hydrochloride
badische anilin- & soda-fabrik a.g. British Patent 978,497
The hydrogenation of 2-chlorocyclododecanone-(1)-oxime or a corresponding compound containing one or two olefinic bonds, if carried out at 0-130°C in an inert solvent and in the presence of dispersed, supported Pd or Pt catalyst, yields cyclododecanone oxime HCl.
universal oil products co. British Patent 978,613
Hydrocarbon oils are hydrocracked at 288-454°C and 75-136 atm H2 pressure in the presence of a catalyst containing 0.or-3.0 wt.% Pd or other Pt group metal on a precalcined base consisting of 37-88 wt.% SiO2 and 63-12 wt.% Al2O3.
ajinomoto co. inc. British Patent 980,239
The reaction between liquid vinyl acetate and H2 and CO at 30-180°C and above 50 kg/cm2 pressure, if carried out in an organic solvent and in the presence of 0.001-1.0 g/1 Rh in the form of its carbonyl, or Rh-containing substance which is converted to carbonyl under the reaction conditions, results in the formation of α-acetoxypro-pionaldehyde.
Preparation of Dipyridyls
imperial chemical industries ltd. British Patent 981,353
2,2´-Dipyridyls or their alkyl derivatives are produced by heating pyridine or its alkyl derivatives of 250-450°C in the presence of 1-50 wt.% alumina catalyst supporting about 5 wt.% finely divided Rh, Os or Ir.
t. j. smith & nephew ltd. British Patent 981,460
N2H4 derivatives of formula OHPH-CH2-NR-NHR are produced by the hydrogen reduction of OHPH-CH2NR-NH2 in alcoholic solution in the presence of R2CO and a PtO catalyst.
Hydrocarbon Conversion Catalysts
the british petroleum co. ltd British Patents 981,691-9
Hydrocarbon conversion catalysts useful as catalysts for isomerisation, the production of halogenated hydrocarbons and dehydrohalogenation comprise a refractory metal oxide supporting 0.01-5 wt.% Pt group metal, preferably Pt or Pd, 0.01-10 wt.% alkali or alkaline earth metal and 1.0-15 wt.% retained halogen, preferably CI.
Platinum Catalyst for the Oxidation of Exhaust Gases
universal oil products co. U.S. Patent 3,148,036
An exhaust gas converter uses as the oxidation catalyst Al2O3 spheres supporting o.r wt.% Pt.
varta a.g. & siemens-schuckertwerke a.g. U.S. Patent 3,150,011
Double skeleton catalyst structures are produced by applying a finely divided supporting skeleton material on a conductive substrate base, sintering at 600-1100°C, embedding a finely divided Raney alloy of Pt, Pd, Re, Ag, W, Mo or Ni activated by a Pt group metal, sintering the laminate and dissolving out the soluble component.
cities service research & development co. U.S. Patent 3,150,073
A reforming and isomerisation process for hydrocarbons utilises 0.6 wt.% Pt/Al2O3 catalyst, 0.5-5 moles H2/mole hydrocarbon and is operated at 600-950°F and 100-600 p.s.i.g.
Production of Cyclohexane
phillips petroleum co. U.S. Patent 3,150,195
Activated charcoal supporting 0.01-5 wt.% Pt is used as a dehydrocyclisation catalyst in the production of C6H12 from a mixture of n-C6HI4 and methylcyclopentane.
edogawa k.k.k.k. U.S. Patent 3,150,930
In the cyclic production of H2O2, tetra-hydro-anthraquinone is dehydrogenated to the corresponding anthraquinone at 80-300°C, 1 atm, with an C2H4 or C3H6 or H2 acceptor and Pd catalyst supported by Al2O3, MgO2, etc.
Decolourisation of Phthalic Acids
richfield oil corporation. U.S. Patent 3,151,154
Phthalic acids are decolourised by contacting their solutions in a polar solvent with Pt, Pd, Rh, but preferably PtO2, catalyst and H2 at 100-250°C and 50-2000 p.s.i. followed by acidification and recovery of crystalline acid.
Catalysts in the Preparation of Ketones
diamond alkali co. U.S. Patent 3,151,167
The contacting of an epoxide with an alcohol solution of [Rh(CO)4]2 or [Ir(CO)4]2 causes a molecular rearrangement to R-CO-CH2R1.
Paraffin Conversion Catalysts
phillips petroleum co. U.S. Patent 3,151,180
6-20C aliphatic paraffins are converted to the corresponding defines by contacting them with an a-Al2O3 of 0.01-5 m2/g surface area supporting Pt, Pd or Rh, at 850-1050°F and at atmospheric to 100 p.s.i.g. pressure and with 0.5-10 moles H2 per one mole hydrocarbon.
air products and chemicals inc. U.S. Patent 3,152,092
A Pt/Al2O3 hydrogenative gasoline reforming catalyst is produced by forming sorptive Al2O3 granules by the dehydration of bayerite, subjecting them to humidification and carbonation treatment, impregnating them with a Pt compound and heating at elevated temperature to provide a predominantly dry η-A12O3 carrier with a minor amount of Pt-containing compound.
phillips petroleum co. U.S. Patent 3,152,144
Sulpholenes are hydrogenated to sulpholanes by adding H2O2 to the feed and hydrogenating in the presence of Al2O3 or diatomaceous earth supporting Pt, Pd or their mixtures as catalyst.
socony mobil oil co. inc. U.S. Patent 3,152,980
Hydrocarbon charges containing at least 1 wt.% pyrenes are hydrocracked in two stages in the presence of 0.05-20 wt.% Pt or Pd series noble metal supported on a composite of solid refractory oxides.
commercial solvents corp. U.S. Patent 3,153,095
N, N-Dialkylhydrazines are produced by contacting lower N, N-nitrosodialkylamines with 0.5-1.5 wt.% urea, biuret, etc., to prevent catalyst poisoning and then hydrogenating them in the presence of a refractory oxide- or C-supported Pt, Pd, Rh or Ir catalyst.
stamicarbon n.v. U.S. Patent 3,153,678
Aryl or alkaryl napthenes are produced by treating an aromatic hydrocarbon or an alkyl-substituted aromatic hydrocarbon with H2 below 100 atm and 250°C in the presence of a heteropolyacid, e.g. phosphomolybolic acid and 0.1-35 wt.% Pt, Pd, Ir, Os, Rh or Ru supported on a refractory oxide, based on the wt. of such acid.
Production of Hydrogen Iodide
el paso natural gas products co. U.S. Patent 3,154,382
HI is produced by reacting H2 and 12 at 100-400°C in the presence of a composite catalyst consisting of Al2O3, 0.01-1.0 wt.% Pt and 0.1-8 wt.% halogen combined with Al2O3.
Demetallisation of Heavy Petroleum Oils
esso research & engineering co. U.S. Patent 3,154,480
Metallic impurities are removed from petroleum residues boiling at 900-1500°F by contacting them with finely divided Pt/Al2O3 catalyst, subjecting them at 200-600°F to high energy ionising radiation followed by separation of the catalyst on which the metallic impurities have been adsorbed.
Production of 5-Aminofurans
the norwich pharmacal co. U.S. Patent 3,154,543
Catalytic hydrogenation of a nitrofuran in the presence of a solvent comprising CH3COOC2H6 and absolute C2H5OH in a 3:1 volume ratio and a catalyst consisting of charcoal supporting 5 wt.% Pd, if carried out at 2-3 atm, yields the corresponding 5-aminofurans.
imperial chemical industries ltd. U.S. Patent 3,154,584
Diaminotoluenes are produced by reducing dinitrotoluenes with H2 in the presence of 15-150 p.p.m. Pt or Pd catalyst and carrying out the reduction in H2O/C2H6OH mixture at 110-I40°C and 1-10 atm.
Oxidation of Olefines
farbwerke hoechst a.g. U.S. Patent 3,154,586
Olefines are converted to carbonyl compounds by contacting them at 50-160°C and a pH of 0.5-6 with O2 and a liquid catalyst system comprising H2O, a Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru or Ir salt and a redox system containing a metal showing several valencies under these reaction conditions.
socony mobil oil co. inc. U.S. Patent 3,155,605
Naphtha fractions are reformed catalytically by fractionating them to concentrate substantially all alkyl cyclopentones in the lower naphtha fraction and reforming this fraction in the usual conditions in the presence of a steamed Pt/Al2O3 catalyst and 0.001-0.7 wt.% S.
general electric co., new york U.S. Patent 3,156,094
A catalytic ignition system incorporated into turbojet thrust augmentors utilises a flow permeable Pt or Pt alloy disc and a metering disc dynamically loaded against the catalyst element.
shell oil co. U.S. Patent 3,156,735
Olefinic hydrocarbons are oxidatively dehydrogenated by contacting them at 400-550°C, in admixture with O2 with a catalyst comprising a low surface area solid support and 0. 05-5 wt.% Au and Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru or Ir taken in a ratio of 0.2-25 atoms of Au per atom of the said noble metal.
Hydrocarbon Conversion Catalysts
california research corp. U.S. Patent 3,157,590
An improved isomerisation-cracking process for petroleum distillates utilises a Group VIII metal catalyst, preferably 0.1-1 wt.% Pt or PtO supported on an active SiO2-Al2O3 support.
Production of Cyclohexanone Oxime
e. i. du pont de nemours & co. U.S. Patent 3,157,702
Cyclohexanone oxime is produced by hydrogenating nitrocyclohexane in the presence of a 5% Pd/C2H2 black catalyst containing 1% of Mg promoter and Pb acetate in a 1:5 Pb:Pd ratio.
esso research & engineering co. U.S. Patent 3,158,662
5-6 C paraffins are isomerised by contact with a supported Pt catalyst containing 0.3-0.6 wt.% Pt and 5-15 wt.% AlCl3 at 200-400°F, 400-1500 p.s.i. and in the presence of H2
abbott laboratories U.S. Patent 3,159,639
The hydrogenation of pyridylcarboxylic and pyridylalkanoic acids at 0-100°C, 1-1000 atm and in the presence of 0.5-5 wt.% Rh/C or Rh/Al2O3 catalyst will result in the formation of the corresponding piperidylcarboxylic and C-piperidylalkanoic acids.
general electric co. U.S. Patent 3,159,662
The (PtCl2-C3He)2 complex has been used as a catalyst in the production of organosilicon compounds by reacting aliphatically unsaturated compounds with those containing Si-H bonds.
Production of α-Acyloxy-propionaldehydes
ajtnomoto co. inc. French Patent 1,361,797
The reaction in a liquid phase at elevated temperatures and pressures between a vinyl ester of fatty acids and H2 and Co in the presence of a Rh catalyst yields α-acyloxy-propionaldehydes.
Precious Metal Hydrogenation Catalysts
shionogi & co ltd French Patent 1,361,980
Unsaturated morphinanes may be hydrogenated with H2 in the presence of Pt or Pd catalyst.
badische anilin- & soda-fabrik a.g. French Patent 1,363,089
Glyoxal is produced by reacting C2H4 at 0-100°C with 1-40 wt.% HNO3 and in the presence of 0.0001-1 wt.% Pd salt, preferably PdCl2 or Pd(NO3)2.
shell internationale research mij. n.v. French Patent 1,364,001
A catalyst for the hydrocracking of hydrocarbon oils consists of a refractory oxide of 50-90 wt.% SiO2 and 10-50 wt.% Al2O4,part of which may be replaced by MgO2 or B2O3, carrying 0.1-20 wt.% Ag or Cu and 0.1-5 wt.% Pd, Rh, Ru or their mixtures.
ste. d’electro-chimie, d’electro-metallurgie et des acieres electriques d’ugine French Patent 1,364,577
Methylamines are produced by the gaseous phase hydrogenation of HCN with H2 at elevated pressure, below 250°C and in the presence of a refractory metal oxide-supported Group VIII noble metal, preferably Pd or Pt.
imperial chemical industries ltd. French Patent 1,365,520
Gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons are hydroformed at 550-750°C above 7 kg/cm2 and in the presence of 1. 3-5.5 moles H2O, H2 and 0.1-0.5 wt.% of a refractory oxide-supported Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru, Os or Ir catalyst.
the british petroleum co. ltd. French Patent 1,365,885
Ethylenic hydrocarbons are produced by the isomerisation of ethylenic hydrocarbon mixtures in the presence of a catalyst comprising a complex of a Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru or Ir halide and the ethylenic hydrocarbon, at elevated temperature and pressure.
Production of Organosilicon Compounds
compagnie française thomson-houston French Patent 1,366,279
Organosilicon compounds are produced by contacting an aliphatic compound with an Si compound having at least one Si-H bond in the presence of an Rh catalyst produced by reacting RhCl3. 3H2O with compounds capable of giving an olefinic, carboxylate or substituted organoxy complex of Rh.
Production of Alkyl Aromatic Compounds
bataafsche petroleum mij. n.v. German Patent 1,178,065
Diaryl alkanes are converted to alkyl aromatic compounds by heating at 300-600°C in the presence of a refractory metal oxide catalyst and also a Pt or Pd dehydrogenation catalyst.
Beta-chloroalkyl Chloroformate Production
badische anilin- & soda-fabrik a.g. German Patent 1,179,922
The reaction of 1,2-alkylene oxides with phosgene in the vapour phase is catalysed by a Group VIII metal chloride on a support, e.g. Rh C13/Al2O3.
Production of Vinyl Carboxylates
nippon gosei k.k.k.k. German Patent 1,179,928
The reaction of C2H4, O2 and carboxylic acid to produce vinyl acetate and higher homologues is catalysed by a mixture of a Pd, Rh or Pt salt and a Cu, Zn, Hg, Pb, Cr, Mn, Fe or Ni salt.
Removal of Formic Acid from 2-8C Fatty Acids
shell internationale research mij. German Patent 1,180,360
HCOOH is removed from 2-8C saturated fatty acids by vapour phase degradation at 80-220°C using a catalyst consisting of 0.05-5 wt.% Pt/ Al2O3 with a neutral surface and a specific area of 20-400 m2/g.
Production of Adipodinitrile
e. i. du pont de nemours & co. German Patent 1,181,197
Adipodinitrile is produced by the hydrogenative scission of 1,2-dicyanocyclobutane in the presence of Pt or Rh catalyst.
Partial Diene Hydrogenation
badische anilin- & soda-fabrik a.g. German Patent 1,181,700
Cyclic compounds with at least two double bonds are reduced to cyclo-olefines by molecular H in the presence of a Pd catalyst poisoned by Cu, Ag, Zn, Cd, Hg, Th, Pb, Sb, Fe, etc.
socony mobil oil co, German Patent 1, 183, 480
Mixtures of various Al2O3, 3H2O are impregnated with a Pt compound to give 0.01-5 wt.% Ft in the final compound and HNO3 and then dried and calcined.
farbwerkb hobchst a.g. German Patent 1,183,488
The oxidation of defines to aldehydes and /or ketones is catalysed by a Cu salt catalyst activated with a Pd salt with a Cu:Pd ratio of 50-500:1.
Reforming of Naphtha
esso research & engineering co. Dutch Application 208,826
Pt/Al2O3 catalyst is used in treating high S, high boiling naphtha in a multiple zone reformation process.
Hydrogénation of Tetracycline Precursors
american cyanamid co. Dutch Application 226,460
A supported Pd catalyst is used in the production of tetracyline by catalytic hydrogenation.
teijen ltd. Dutch Application 64.02,303
The caprolactam is produced from η-caprolactone, η-hydroxycapronamide or amides of η-hydroxycaproic acid by reaction with NH3, in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst, e.g. Pt/C or Pd/C. (See also No. 64. 02, 312).
Hydrogenation of Hydrocarbons
u.s. rubber co. Dutch Application 64.02,424
Organic compounds, such as heterocyclic compounds, are hydrogenated non-destructively using a Pt metal sulphide catalyst with H2.
universal oil products co. Dutch Application 64.03,228
A catalyst consists of a noble metal deposited on a refractory oxide, e.g. Pt/Al2O3, which has been modified with 0.05-1.5 wt.% S.
Selective Hydrogenation of Trienes
j. r. geigy a.g. Dutch Application 64.04,143
Pd catalysts can be used for selective hydrogenation when they are used in the presence of a cyclic compound source of H.
leesona corp. British Patent 975,314
Electrodes for fuel cells are made by forming an electrode structure by bonding a layer of zeolite to a ceramic structure or a zeolite layer of different pore size, ion-exchanging the naturally occurring ions of the zeolite for Pt, Pd, Rh ions and heating the composite at 600-1000°C to stabilise it.
esso research and engineering co. British Patent 976,796
A fuel cell suitable for use with liquid combustible fuels comprises an electrolyte container, an aqueous electrolyte and an electrode assembly consisting of Pt coated wire screen anode and cathode placed 0-001-1.0 mm away on each side of a 10-80% porous membrane with a 5-50Å pore.
Hydrogen Diffusion Electrodes
leesona corp. U.S. Patent 3,148,089
Fuel cells utilise fuel electrodes in the form of H diffusion tubes constructed of Pd or Pd/Ag alloys containing 5-40 wt.% Ag.
Fuel Cell Electrodes
ionics inc. U.S. Patent 3,152,014
A fuel cell consisting of a pair of spaced porous electrodes each of which is in contact with an ion-permeable membrane uses as both oxidant and fuel electrodes a porous C impregnated with Pt or preferably a porous structure activated by Rh, Pt, Ir or Pd.
g. s. bachman British Patent 974,070
Multi-junction thermocouple suitable for refractory furnaces utilises wires of Pt used in conjunction with Pt-Ir or Pt-Rh alloy wires arranged so that, when part of the junction wire is eroded, the Pd wire or strip, placed between the junction wires, melts and provides a new hot junction.
Electrical Resistance Elements
johnson, matthey & co. ltd. British Patent 981,807
Electrical resistance elements suitable for use as heater elements or as thermocouple elements consist of a sintered refractory ceramic material core and a Pt group metal or its alloy as the external layer which will not alloy with the ceramic at the operating temperature.