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Volume 26, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0032-1400


The performance of dispenser cathodes has been considerably improved over the last quarter of a century. This review considers advances made in the materials used either for the matrix of the thermionic emitter, or to coat its surface, which have resulted in lower effective work functions. The use of iridium, osmium and ruthenium has played a significant role in this improvement.


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