Skip to content
Volume 62, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 2056-5135


Fast pyrolysis for liquids has been developed in recent decades as a fast and flexible method to provide high yields of liquid products. An overview of this promising field is given, with a comprehensive introduction as well as a practical guide to those thinking of applying fast pyrolysis liquids (bio-oil) in various applications. It updates the literature with recent developments that have occurred since the reviews cited herein. Part I contains an introduction to the background, science, feedstocks, technology and products available for fast pyrolysis. Part II will detail some of the promising applications as well as pre-treatment and bio-oil upgrading options. The applications include use of bio-oil as an energy carrier, precursor to second generation biofuels, as part of a biorefinery concept and upgrading to fuels and chemicals.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Czernik S., and Bridgwater A. V. Energy Fuels, 2004, 18, (2), 590 LINK [Google Scholar]
  2. ‘Standard Specification for Pyrolysis Liquid Biofuel’, ASTM D7544-12, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, USA, 2012 LINK [Google Scholar]
  3. Peacocke G. V. C. ‘Ablative Pyrolysis of Biomass’, PhD Thesis, Aston University, Birmingham, UK, October, 1994LINK [Google Scholar]
  4. Bridgwater A. V. Biomass Bioenergy, 2012, 38, 68 LINK [Google Scholar]
  5. Mohan D., Pittman C. U. Jr., and Steele P. H. Energy Fuels, 2006, 20, (3), 848 LINK [Google Scholar]
  6. Kersten S. R. A., Wang X., Prins W., and van Swaaij W. P. M. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2005, 44, (23), 8773 LINK [Google Scholar]
  7. Bridgwater A. V. Chem. Eng. J., 2003, 91, (2–3), 87 LINK [Google Scholar]
  8. Bridgwater A. V., Czernik S., Piskorz J., ‘The Status of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis’, in “Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass: A Handbook”, ed. and Bridgewater A. V. 2, CPL Press, Newbury, UK, 2002, pp. 122 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bridgwater A. V., Hofbauer H., ‘Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass’, in “Thermal Biomass Conversion”, ed. Bridgwater A. V., and van Loo S. CPL Press, Newbury, UK, 2009, pp. 3778 [Google Scholar]
  10. Venderbosch R. H., and Prins W. Biofuels, Bioprod. Bioref., 2010, 4, (2), 178 LINK [Google Scholar]
  11. Banks S. W., Bridgwater A. V., ‘Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis for Improved Liquid Quality’, in “Handbook of Biofuels Production: Processes and Technologies”, eds. Luque R., Lin C. S. K., Wilson K., and Clark J. Elsevier Ltd, Duxford, UK, 2016, pp. 391429 LINK [Google Scholar]
  12. Piskorz J., Scott D. S., Radlein D., Czernik S., ‘New Applications of the Waterloo Fast Pyrolysis Process’, in “Biomass Thermal Processing”, Eds. Hogan E., Robert J., Grassi G., and Bridgwater A. V. CPL Scientific Press, Thatcham, UK, 1992, pp. 6473 [Google Scholar]
  13. Diebold J., Scahill J., ‘Ablative Pyrolysis of Biomass in Solid-Convective Heat Transfer Environments’, in “Fundamentals of Thermochemical Biomass Conversion”, eds. Overend R. P., Milne T. A., and Mudge L. K. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Ltd, Essex, UK, 1985, pp. 539555 LINK [Google Scholar]
  14. Lédé J. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 2003, 70, (2), 601 LINK [Google Scholar]
  15. Peacocke G. V. C., and Bridgwater A. V. Biomass Bioenergy, 1994, 7, (1–6), 147 LINK [Google Scholar]
  16. Pfitzer C., Dahmen N., Tröger N., Weirich F., Sauer J., Günther A., and Müller-Hagedorn M. Energy Fuels, 2016, 30, (10), 8047 LINK [Google Scholar]
  17. Hornung A., Apfelbacher A., Richter F., and Seifert H. ‘Thermo-Chemical Conversion of Energy Crops: Haloclean: Intermediate Pyrolysis’, 6th International Congress on Valorisation and Recycling of Industrial Waste (VARIREI, 2007),L’Aquila, Italy,27–28 June, 2007 [Google Scholar]
  18. Ingram L., Mohan D., Bricka M., Steele P., Strobel D., Crocker D., Mitchell B., Mohammad J., Cantrell K., and Pittman C. U. Jr. Energy Fuels, 2008, 22, (1), 614 LINK [Google Scholar]
  19. Henrich E., Dahmen N., and Dinjus E. Biofuels, Bioprod. Bioref., 2009, 3, (1), 28 LINK [Google Scholar]
  20. Kostas E. T., Beneroso D., and Robinson J. P. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., 2017, 77, 12 LINK [Google Scholar]
  21. Beneroso D., Monti T., Kostas E. T., and Robinson J. Chem. Eng. J., 2017, 316, 481 LINK [Google Scholar]
  22. Toft A. J. ‘A Comparison of Integrated Biomass to Electricity Systems’, PhD Thesis, Aston University, Birmingham, UK, 1996 LINK [Google Scholar]
  23. Bridgwater A. V., ‘Upgrading Fast Pyrolysis Liquids’, in “Thermochemical Processing of Biomass: Conversion into Fuels, Chemicals and Power”, ed. and Brown R. C. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2011 LINK [Google Scholar]
  24. Diebold J. P., Milne T. A., Czernik S., Oasmaa A., Bridgwater A. V., Cuevas A., Gust S., Huffman D., Piskorz J., ‘Proposed Specifications for Various Grades of Pyrolysis Oils’, in “Developments in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion”, eds. Bridgwater A. V., and Boocock D. G. B. 1, Springer Science+Business Media, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1997, pp. 433447 LINK [Google Scholar]
  25. Diebold J. P., and Czernik S. Energy Fuels, 1997, 11, (5), 1081 LINK [Google Scholar]
  26. Diebold J. P., ‘A Review of the Chemical and Physical Mechanisms of the Storage Stability of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oils’, in “Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass: A Handbook”, ed. and Bridgwater A. V. 2, CPL Press, Newbury, UK, 2002, pp. 243292 [Google Scholar]
  27. Oasmaa A., and Peacocke C. “A Guide to Physical Property Characterisation of Biomass-Derived Fast Pyrolysis Liquids”, VTT Publications 450, Valtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus (VTT), Espoo, Finland, 2001, 102 pp LINK [Google Scholar]
  28. Oasmaa A., and Peacocke C. “Properties and Fuel Use of Biomass-Derived Fast Pyrolysis Liquids: A Guide”, VTT Publications 731, VTT, Espoo, Finland, 2010, 134 pp LINK [Google Scholar]
  29. Peacocke G. V. C., Bridgwater A. V., Brammer J. G., ‘Techno-Economic Assessment of Power Production from the Wellman Process Engineering and BTG Fast Pyrolysis Processes’, in “Science in Thermal and Chemical Conversion”, eds. Bridgwater A. V., and Boocock D. G. B. CPL Press, Newbury, UK, 2004, pp. 17851802 [Google Scholar]
  30. Diebold J. P., Scahill J. W., Czernik S., Philips S. D., Feik C. J., ‘Progress in the Production of Hot-Gas Filtered Biocrude Oil at NREL’, in “Bio-Oil Production and Utilisation”, eds. Bridgwater A. V., and Hogan E. N. CPL Press, Newbury, UK, 1996, pp. 6681 [Google Scholar]
  31. Hoekstra E., Hogendoorn K. J. A., Wang X., Westerhof R. J. M., Kersten S. R. A., van Swaaij W. P. M., and Groenveld M. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2009, 48, (10), 4744 LINK [Google Scholar]
  32. Vivarelli S., and Tondi G. ‘Pyrolysis Oil: An Innovative Liquid Biofuel for Heating the COMBIO Project’, International Workshop: Bioenergy for a Sustainable Development,Casino Viña del Mar, Chile,8th–9th November, 2004 LINK [Google Scholar]
  33. Sitzmann J., and Bridgwater A. V. ‘Upgrading Fast Pyrolysis Oils by Hot Vapour Filtration’, 15th European Energy from Biomass Conference,Berlin, Germany,7th–11th May, 2007 [Google Scholar]
  34. ‘Renewable Energy: Moving Towards A Low Carbon Economy’, European Commission, Brussels, Belgium: (Accessed on 16th February 2011) [Google Scholar]
  35. Peacocke G. V. C., ‘Transport Handling and Storage of Fast Pyrolysis Liquids’, in “Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass: A Handbook”, ed. and Bridgewater A. V. 2, CPL Press, Newbury, UK, 2002, pp. 293338 [Google Scholar]
  36. Blin J., Volle G., Girard P., Bridgwater T., and Meier D. Fuel, 2007, 86, (17–18), 2679 LINK [Google Scholar]
  37. Bridgwater A. V., ‘Pyrolysis of Biomass’, in “Transformations to Effective Use: Biomass Power for the World” eds. van Swaaij W., Kersten S., and Palz W. 6, Taylor & Francis Group LLC, Boca Raton, USA, 2015, pp. 473514 LINK [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error