Skip to content
Volume 62, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 2056-5135


“Make possible the loyal execution of any honest order”

Numa Droz, Member of Swiss Parliament and Federal Councillor (1877)

Precious metals are subject to great scrutiny from lawmakers because of their financial and strategic importance. Gold and silver coins have been hallmarked since ancient times but the platinum group metals (pgm) were only known from 1748, therefore their hallmarking and fineness control is more recent. This paper reviews the legal history of pgm control in Switzerland where precious metal refiners’ and fine watchmakers’ lobbying impacted Swiss regulations on precious metals trade. Platinum and palladium have been regulated since 1914 and 1995 respectively while the other pgms (rhodium, iridium, osmium and ruthenium) are not.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Platinum Metal Rev., 1975, 19, (2), 63 LINK [Google Scholar]
  2. Organ R. M. Platinum Metals Rev., 2010, 54, (1), 51 LINK [Google Scholar]
  3. ‘Federal Act on the Control of the Trade in Precious Metals and Precious Metal Articles (Precious Metals Control Act, PMCA)’, SR 941.31, The Federal Council of the Swiss Government, Bern, Switzerland, 20th June, 1933 LINK [Google Scholar]
  4. ‘Ordinance on the Control of Trade in Precious Metals and Articles for Precious Metals (Precious Metals Control Ordinance, PMCO)’, SR 941.311, The Federal Council of the Swiss Government, Bern, Switzerland, 8th May, 1934 LINK [Google Scholar]
  5. ‘Ordinance on the Fees for Precious Metal Control’, SR 941.319, The Federal Council of the Swiss Government, Bern, Switzerland, 17th August, 2005 LINK [Google Scholar]
  6. ‘Organisation’, Swiss Customs Administration, Bern, Switzerland: (Accessed on 6th March 2018)
  7. Matthias A. “Centenaire du Bureau du Contrôle Fédéral de la Chaux-de-Fonds: 1820–1920: Sa Création: Son Évolution: Avec un Aperçu Historique sur le Contrôle des Ouvrages en Métaux Précieux dans le Canton de Neuchâtel et en Suisse”, Arts Graphiques Haefeli and Co, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland, November, 1920 [Google Scholar]
  8. Swiss Fed. Gaz., 1879, 3, (54), 869 LINK [Google Scholar]
  9. Swiss Fed. Gaz., 1881, 1, (1), 1 LINK [Google Scholar]
  10. Swiss Fed. Gaz., 1885, 4, (53), 378 LINK [Google Scholar]
  11. Swiss Fed. Gaz., 1886, 2, (27), 731 LINK [Google Scholar]
  12. Quiring H. “Platinmetalle: Platin, Palladium, Iridium, Osmium, Rhodium, Ruthenium”, Ferdinand Enke Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany, 1962 [Google Scholar]
  13. Cologni F., and Nussbaum E. “Cartier, le Joaillier du Platine”, Cartier, Paris, France, 1995 [Google Scholar]
  14. Swiss Fed. Gaz., 1910, 1, (12), 507 LINK [Google Scholar]
  15. Swiss Fed. Gaz., 1911, 1, (12), 565 LINK [Google Scholar]
  16. Swiss Fed. Gaz., 1913, 2, (13), 351 LINK [Google Scholar]
  17. Swiss Fed. Gaz., 1914, 2, (12), 1 LINK [Google Scholar]
  18. Swiss Fed. Gaz., 1915, 2, (17), 201 LINK [Google Scholar]
  19. Swiss Fed. Gaz., 1916, 2, (15), 199 LINK [Google Scholar]
  20. Swiss Fed. Gaz., 1921, 2, (18), 531 LINK [Google Scholar]
  21. Swiss Fed. Gaz., 1916, 2, (21), 717 LINK [Google Scholar]
  22. Swiss Fed. Gaz., 1925, 3, (38), 113 LINK [Google Scholar]
  23. Duparc L., and Tikonowitch M.-N. “Le Platine et les Gîtes Platinifères de l’Oural et du Monde”, Sonor, Geneva, Switzerland, 1920 LINK [Google Scholar]
  24. McDonald D., and Hunt L. B. “A History of Platinum and its Allied Metals”, Johnson Matthey, London, UK, 1982, pp 450 LINK [Google Scholar]
  25. Swiss Fed. Gaz., 1917, 1, (11), 294 LINK [Google Scholar]
  26. Swiss Fed. Gaz., 1917, 4, (38), 47 LINK [Google Scholar]
  27. Swiss Fed. Gaz., 1931, 1, (24), 913 LINK [Google Scholar]
  28. Swiss Fed. Gaz., 1933, 1, (25), 969 LINK [Google Scholar]
  29. Official Compilation of Federal Legislation, 1934, 50, 375
  30. Cottington I. E. Platinum Metals Rev., 1991, 35, (3), 141 LINK [Google Scholar]
  31. Swiss Fed. Gaz., 1973, 1, (21), 1395 LINK [Google Scholar]
  32. ‘Convention Concerning the Examination and Designation of Precious Metal Articles’, SR 0.941.31, AS 2010 5047, Official Compilation of Federal Legislation, 2010, (45), 5123 LINK
  33. ‘International Conventions: Convention on the Control and Marking of Articles of Precious Metals’, Swiss Customs Administration, Bern, Switzerland: (Accessed on 2nd March 2018)
  34. Legal Documents: Information Documents, Hallmarking Convention, Geneva, Switzerland: (Accessed on 2nd March 2018)
  35. Swiss Fed. Gaz., 1993, 2, (27), 997 LINK [Google Scholar]
  36. Official Compilation of Federal Legislation, 1918, 42, 729
  37. “PGM Market Report November 2016: Forecast and Supply of Platinum Demand in 2016”, Johnson Matthey, London, UK, 2016, 56 pp LINK [Google Scholar]
  38. Doyen P. “Le Palladium, Sa Nature, Ses Propriétés, Sa Technique, Son Emploi en Bijouterie, Joaillerie, Orfèvrerie, Horlogerie”, Office Technique des Métaux Précieux, Paris, France, 1950 [Google Scholar]
  39. Böck R., and Alt F. ‘Use and Demand of Palladium for the Industry’ in “Palladium Emissions in the Environment”, eds. Zereini F., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 2006, pp. 39-51 LINK [Google Scholar]
  40. French General Tax Code:;jsessionid=E7DF72AB2F1FE1EFB74725F768FC817E.tplgfr21s_1?cidTexte=LEGITEXT000006069577&dateTexte=20170901 (Accessed on 1st September, 2017)
  41. ‘Guide to the Precious Metals Marking Act and Regulations: Enforcement Guidelines’, Competition Bureau, Government of Canada, Gatineau, Canada, 4th July, 2006, 26 pp LINK$file/guide-precious-metals-2006-07-04-e.pdf [Google Scholar]
  42. “Instructions about the Application of the Precious Metals Legislation (PMCI)”, D243, Central Office for Precious Metals Control, Swiss Customs Control, Bern, Switzerland, 1st May, 2017, 32 pp LINK [Google Scholar]
  43. Federal Law Against Unfair Competition, SR 241, Swiss Federal Chancellery, Bern, Switzerland, 19th December, 1986 LINK [Google Scholar]
  44. ‘Guides for the Jewelry, Precious Metals, and Pewter Industries’, 16 CFR 23, Federal Trade Commission, Washington DC, USA, 1st January, 2012 LINK [Google Scholar]
  45. Arbini F., Rampinini C., and Ruffoni A. Chimia Int. J. Chem., 1995, 49, (5), 145 LINK [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error