Skip to content
1887
Volume 64, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 2056-5135

Abstract

Cooling towers are industrial cooling units operating to dissipate heat. As with any surface in contact with aqueous systems, biofilm formation appears on the surface of heat exchangers. Although biofilm formation on plastic tower fill in wet cooling towers has been studied widely, no studies were found regarding biofilm formation on steel heat exchangers in closed-loop systems. In this study, heat exchangers were coated with nano-silica, which is known to reduce the formation of biofilm. Natural biofilm formation was monitored for six months. Biofouling was examined monthly using epifluorescence microscopy by assessing the numbers of live and dead bacteria. It was observed that the biofilm layer formed on the nano-silica coated heat exchanger surfaces was significantly lower than on the control surfaces. 3 log microbial reduction was recorded on coated surfaces in the first month. After six months, total biomass on control surfaces reached 1.28 × 1012 cell cm−2, while the biomass on nano-silica coated surfaces was 6.3 × 104 cell cm−2.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1595/205651320X15895565390677
2020-01-01
2024-02-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmtr/64/4/Turetgen_16a_Imp.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1595/205651320X15895565390677&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Di Pippo F., Di Gregorio L., Congestri R., Tandoi V., and Rossetti S. FEMS Microbiol Ecol., 2018, 94, (5), fiy044 LINK https://doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fiy044 [Google Scholar]
  2. Namasivayam S. K. R., Francis A. L., Bharani R. S. A., and Nachiyar C. V. J. Clean. Prod., 2019, 231, 872 LINK https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.05.199 [Google Scholar]
  3. Tsao H.-F., Scheikl U., Herbold C., Indra A., Walochnik J., and Horn M. Water Res., 2019, 159, 464 LINK https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2019.04.028 [Google Scholar]
  4. Türetgen I. Biofouling: J. Bioadhes. Biofilm Res., 2004, 20, (2), 81 LINK https://doi.org/10.1080/08927010410001710027 [Google Scholar]
  5. Nourani Z., Naserbegi A., Tayyebi Sh., and Aghaie M. Therm. Sci. Eng. Prog., 2019, 14, 100406 LINK https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsep.2019.100406 [Google Scholar]
  6. Zaza A., Laadel N. E., Bennouna E. G., El Hammami Y., and Janan M. T. Energy Proc., 2019, 157, 1230 LINK https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2018.11.289 [Google Scholar]
  7. Wagner T. V., Parsons J. R., Rijnaarts H. H. M., de Voogt P., and Langenhoff A. A. M. J. Haz. Mater., 2020, 384, 121314 LINK https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.121314 [Google Scholar]
  8. Holberg S., Losada R., Blaikie F. H., Hansen H. H. W. B., Soreau S., and Onderwater R. C. A. Mater. Today Comm., 2020, 22, 100750 LINK https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mtcomm.2019.100750 [Google Scholar]
  9. Türetgen I. Water SA, 2015, 41, (3), 295 LINK https://doi.org/10.4314/wsa.v41i3.01 [Google Scholar]
  10. Lemouari M., Boumaza M., and Kaabi A. Energy, 2011, 36, (10), 5815 LINK https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2011.08.045 [Google Scholar]
  11. Malaki M., Hashemzadeh Y., and Karevan M. Prog. Org. Coat., 2016, 101, 477 LINK https://doi.org/10.1016/j.porgcoat.2016.09.012 [Google Scholar]
  12. Simões M., Simões L. C., and Vieira M. J. Food Sci. Technol., 2010, 43, (4), 573 LINK https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2009.12.008 [Google Scholar]
  13. Sutherland I. W. Microbiology, 2001, 147, (1), 3 LINK https://doi.org/10.1099/00221287-147-1-3 [Google Scholar]
  14. Gómez-Suárez C., Pasma J., van der Borden A. J., Wingender J., Flemming H.-C., Busscher H. J., and van der Mei H. C. Microbiology, 2002, 148, (4), 1161 LINK https://doi.org/10.1099/00221287-148-4-1161 [Google Scholar]
  15. Dat N. M., Manh L. D., Hamanaka D., Hung D. V., Tanaka F., and Uchino T. Food Control, 2014, 42, 94 LINK https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.01.040 [Google Scholar]
  16. Pasmore M., Todd P., Pfeifer B., Rhodes M., and Bowman C. N. Biofouling: J. Bioadhes. Biofilm Res., 2002, 18, (1), 65 LINK https://doi.org/10.1080/08927010290017743 [Google Scholar]
  17. Naik K., and Kowshik M. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2014, 34, 62 LINK https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2013.10.008 [Google Scholar]
  18. Azeredo J., Oliveira R., ‘Biofilm Characteristics: Biofilm Formation: The Role of Hydrophobicity and Exopolymers in Initial Adhesion and Biofilm Formation’, in “Biofilms in Medicine, Industry and Environmental Biotechnology”, eds. Lens P., Moran A. P., Mahony T., Stoodley P., and O’Flaherty V. IWA Publishing, London, UK, 2003, pp 16–32 LINK https://doi.org/10.2166/9781780402161 [Google Scholar]
  19. Arkles B. ‘Hydrophobicity, Hydrophilicity and Silanes’, Paint and Coatings Industry Magazine, 2006, 22, (10), 114 [Google Scholar]
  20. Antoci V., Adams C. S., Parvizi J., Davidson H. M., Composto R. J., Freeman T. A., Wickstrom E,, Ducheyne P., Jungkind D., Shapiro I. M., and Hickok N. J. Biomaterials, 2008, 29, (35), 4684 LINK https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2008.08.016 [Google Scholar]
  21. Casey A. L., Mermel L. A., Nightingale P., and Elliott T. S. J. Lancet: Infect. Dis., 2008, 8, (12), 763 LINK https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(08)70280-9 [Google Scholar]
  22. McConnell S. A., Gubbins P. O., and Anaissie E. J. Clin. Infect. Dis., 2003, 37, (1), 65 LINK https://doi.org/10.1086/375227 [Google Scholar]
  23. Hockenhull J. C., Dwan K. M., Smith G. W., Gamble C. L., Boland A., Walley T. J., and Dickson R. C. Crit. Care Med., 2009, 37, (2), 702 LINK https://doi.org/10.1097/ccm.0b013e3181958915 [Google Scholar]
  24. Niël-Weise B. S., Stijnen T., and van den Broek P. J. Intens. Care Med., 2007, 33, (12), 2058 LINK https://doi.org/10.1007/s00134-007-0897-3 [Google Scholar]
  25. Epstein A. K., Pokroya B., Seminara A., and Aizenberg J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 2011, 108, (3), 995 LINK https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1011033108 [Google Scholar]
  26. Hoffman L. R., D’Argenio D. A., MacCoss M. J., Zhang Z., Jones R. A., and Miller S. I. Nature, 2005, 436, (7054), 1171 LINK https://doi.org/10.1038/nature03912 [Google Scholar]
  27. Jena P., Mohanty S., Mallick R., Jacob B., and Sonawane A. Int. J. Nanomed., 2012, 7, 1805 LINK https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S28077 [Google Scholar]
  28. Du H., Lo T.-M., Sitompul J., and Chang M. W. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm., 2012, 424, (4), 657 LINK https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.06.134 [Google Scholar]
  29. Renner L. D., and Weibel D. B. MRS Bull., 2011, 36, (5), 347 LINK https://doi.org/10.1557/mrs.2011.65 [Google Scholar]
  30. Chen M., Yu Q., and Sun H. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 2013, 14, (9), 18488 LINK https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140918488 [Google Scholar]
  31. Zhong L. J., Pang L. Q., Che L. M., Wu X. E., and Chen X. D. Coll. Surf. B: Biointerfaces, 2013, 111, 252 LINK https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2013.05.039 [Google Scholar]
  32. Pagedar A., Singh J., and Batish V. K. J. Basic Microbiol., 2010, 50, (S1), S98 LINK https://doi.org/10.1002/jobm.201000034 [Google Scholar]
  33. Okada A., Nikaido T., Ikeda M., Okada K., Yamauchi J., Foxton R. M., Sawada H., Tagami J., and Matin K. Dental Mater. J., 2008, 27, (4), 565 LINK https://doi.org/10.4012/dmj.27.565 [Google Scholar]
  34. Privett B. J., Youn J., Hong S. A., Lee J., Han J., Shin J. H., and Schoenfisch M. H. Langmuir, 2011, 27, (15), 9597 LINK https://doi.org/10.1021/la201801e [Google Scholar]
  35. Ding W., Ma C., Zhang W., Chiang H., Tam C., Xu Y., Zhang G., and Qian P.-Y. Biofouling: J. Bioadhes. Biofilm Res., 2018, 34, (1), 111 LINK https://doi.org/10.1080/08927014.2017.1409891 [Google Scholar]
  36. Hu J., Lin J., Zhang Y., Lin Z., Qiao Z., Liu Z., Yang W., Liu X., Dong M., and Guo Z. J. Mater. Chem. A, 2019, 7, (45), 26039 LINK https://doi.org/10.1039/C9TA07236E [Google Scholar]
  37. Narayana P. S. V. V. S., and Sirihari P. S. V. V. Regen. Eng. Transl. Med., 2019 LINK https://doi.org/10.1007/s40883-019-00116-3 [Google Scholar]
  38. Achinas S., Charalampogiannis N., and Euverink G. W. Appl. Sci., 2019, 9, (4), 2801 LINK https://doi.org/10.3390/app9142801 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1595/205651320X15895565390677
Loading
/content/journals/10.1595/205651320X15895565390677
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error