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Volume 65, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 2056-5135


Shipping, which accounts for 2.6% of global carbon dioxide emissions, is urged to find clean energy solutions to decarbonise the industry and achieve the International Maritime Organization (IMO)’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emission targets by 2050. It is generally believed that hydrogen will play a vital role in enabling the use of renewable energy sources. However, issues related with hydrogen storage and distribution currently obstruct its implementation. Alternatively, an energy-carrier such as ammonia with its carbon neutral chemical formula, high energy density and established production, transportation and storage infrastructure could provide a practical short-term next generation power solution for maritime industry. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art and emerging technologies for decarbonising shipping using ammonia as a fuel, covering general properties of ammonia, the current production technologies with an emphasis on green synthesis methods, onboard storage and ways to generate power from it.


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